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HOW ANCIENT IS THE TRINITY DOCTRINE? by Wesley P. Walters

As different as para-Christian groups or cults are from each other, most have one thing in common: they hate the biblical teaching of the Trinity. They want their God to be simplistic, uncomplicated, and less complex than the world He created. They want a God reduced to terms they can get their finite minds around.

Modern advances in science have shown that the created world is an extremely complex mechanism. Those who work in nuclear physics or molecular biology are continually discovering the complexity of the world God has created.

In fact, some complex, seemingly contradictory data has yet to be fitted into a rational system that explains the relationships. A simple thing like “light” is known to move like “waves” yet strike like “particles.” Atomic physicists are still struggling to put together a theory that can fully explain this apparent contradiction.

Those who work in the complex mathematical equations of quantum mechanics are told by their instructors that “If you think that you really understand quantum mechanics and how it applies to reality, that proves you do not understand it.” One of the basic theorems is that if the speed of a particle is known, then its location can not be known, and the more accurately you know its location, the less accurately you know its speed. This does not seem very logical to the average person, but it works very well in atomic physics, in which scientists get very close to the essence of matter.

Thus, while scientists are continually learning more about how complex and even apparently contradictory the world of created reality is, cults that reject the complexity of the God who made this reality are proliferating. They, along with Moslems and modern Jews, taunt Christians, saying: “How can there be just one God, and yet the Father be God, the Son be God and the Holy Spirit be God? Is He the Son of Himself and the Father of both?”

Even though Christ Himself taught that the name [singular] of God in which we baptize is Father, Son and Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19), all cults falsely assert that the doctrine of the Trinity is a teaching that grew out of fourth century paganism. So unified are the cults in this assertion that they appear to be using the same erroneous Church history book and parroting one another.

The truth is that by the time of Christ, the first century A.D., the Jews themselves, on the basis of the Old Testament, were coming to an understanding of the complexity of Yahweh.

The Teachings of The Targums

When the Jews returned from Babylonian captivity 450 years before the birth of Jesus, they had adopted Aramaic as their native language. Although it is a dialect of ancient Hebrew, Aramaic is about as different from it as modern Italian is from its classical Latin ancestor. Consequently, during the first and early second centuries A.D., Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Old Testament were made.

These translations, called Targums, were The Living Bibles of their day, an interpretive paraphrase of Scripture. They help us see how these first-century Jews understood their Old Testament.

One of the striking things these Targums show is that first century Jews had come to understand the phrase “the Word of God” as referring to a divine entity within God Himself, yet distinguishable at times from God. J.W. Etheridge, in the introduction to his translations of the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, has given us a number of examples of this Jewish understanding of the term, “the Word” (Aramaic: Memra).

In Genesis 18:1, where the Hebrew Bible says Yahweh (Jehovah) appeared to Abraham, the Targum says, “The Word of the Lord appeared to Abraham.” Further on, where the Hebrew reports “Yahweh rained down upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from Yahweh out of heaven,” the Targum states that “the Word of the Lord sent down upon them sulphur and fire from the presence of the Lord out of heaven.” (Genesis 19:24)

In Genesis 16, when Hagar sees “the Angel of the Lord,” the Targum says she saw “the Word of the Lord.” After seeing this “Word” (Memra) she says, “Here has been revealed the glory of the Shekineh of the Lord.” Then, according to the Jerusalem Targum, “Hagar returned thanks and prayed in the name of the Word of the Lord, who had appeared to her.” Thus the Word not only is regard- ed as the presence of deity, but is in some manner personally distinguishable from the Lord.

In Genesis 28:20 the Targum of Onkelos paraphrases Jacob’s vow, “If God will be with me… then Yahweh will be my God” with the words, “If the Word of the Lord will be my help… the Word of the Lord shall be my God.” Again, the Angel of Yahweh who spoke to Moses at the burning bush (Exodus 3:14) is designated by the Jerusalem Targum as “the Word of the Lord.”

The distinct personality of this Divine Word is seen pointedly in Jonathan’s Targum of Isaiah 63:7-10. There, where the Hebrew text speaks of Yahweh being their Savior, the Targum reads, “the Word (Memra) was their Redeemer.” (vs. 8) When the Israelites continued to disobey, then “His Word (Memra) became their enemy, and fought against them” — an action ascribed to Yahweh in the Hebrew text. Again in Isaiah 45:22 the Targum of Jonathan exhorts, “Look unto My Word and be saved.”

While this personalizing of the Word was being expressed in Palestine in the Targums of Jesus’ day, Philo, an Egyptian Jew and contemporary of Jesus, was expressing similar thoughts in even more distinct words. In his essay “On the Creation,” Philo states that man was not made in the image of some creature, but in the image of God’s own uncreated Word. He wrote: “for the Creator, we know, employed for its making no pattern taken from among created things, but solely, as I have said, His own Word.”

Philo continues: “Man was made a likeness and imitation of the Word, when the Divine Breath was breathed into his face. (“On the Creation,” XLVIII: 139, Loeb Edition I, pp. 110-111)

In his work on Noah, Philo again expresses the teaching that man is made by “the First Cause” (that is, God) in the image of “the Eternal Word:” “Our great Moses likened the fashion of the rea- sonable soul to no created thing, but averred it to be a genuine coinage of that dread Spirit, the Divine and Invisible One, signed and impressed by the seal of God, the stamp of which is the Eternal Word.”

He continues: “…man has been made after the Image of God (Genesis 1:27), not however after the image of anything created… man’s soul having been made after the image of the Archetype, the Word of the First Cause.” (“Noah’s Work as a Planter,” I:18-20, Loeb III, pp. 222-223)

Thus, the eternal Word is in some sense distinguishable from God, and yet at the same time is, like God, uncreated, rational and the bearer of the divine image. This comes very close to the teaching of the New Testament that the Word was distinguishable from God, and yet was God. As John 1:1 expresses it, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” It also appears similar to Paul’s teaching that the Son is “the image of the invisible God” (Colossians 1:15); and the writer of Hebrews statement that the Son “is the exact representation of His being.” (Hebrews 1:3)

Philo, however, goes further. He says that God is the king and shepherd of all creation, but rules and controls it through his eternally existing Word, whom Philo calls God’s “First-born Son.”

His “hallowed flock” of created things God directs by his divine laws, setting over it His true Word and first-born son, who shall take upon Him its government like some viceroy of a great king. (“On Husbandry,” I:51, Loeb III, pp. 134-135)

Philo has God expressing Himself in this manner: “I alone… sustained the Universe to rest firm and sure upon the Mighty Word, who is My viceroy.” (“On Dreams,” I:241, Loeb V, pp. 424- 425)

Therefore this eternal Word, God’s first-born Son, is the upholder of the whole creation, “the everlasting Word of the eternal God is the very sure and staunch prop of the Whole. He it is, who extending Himself from the midst to its utmost bounds… keeps up through all its length Nature’s unvanquished course, combining and compacting all its parts. For the Father who begat Him constituted His Word such a Bond of the Universe as nothing can break.” (“Noah’s Work as a Planter,” I:8-9, Loeb III, pp. 216-217)

This reflects the same thought that Paul expressed about the Son as being the one “in whom all things hold together.” (Colossians 1:17) It also reminds also reminds us of Hebrews 1:3, which depicts the Son as “sustaining all things by his powerful Word.”

Philo continues his discussion of the Word by maintaining that to those incapable of seeing the supreme cause, God Himself, He appears to them in the form of His Angel, the Word: “For just as those who are unable to see the sun itself, see the gleam of the parahelion and take it for the sun, and take the halo round the moon for that luminary itself, so some regard the image of God, His Angel, the Word, as His very self.” (“On Dreams,” I:239, Loeb V, pp. 422-423) This sounds very similar to the teaching tha t the Son is “the radiance (or outshining) of God’s glory” (Hebrews 1:3), the only part of God’s nature that people are allowed to see. This is true because “no one has ever seen God,” but “the only begotten God… He has made Him known.” (John 1:18) Thus, Jesus, the Son, can say, “Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father.” (John 14:9)

Philo further explained that God, being light, is “the archetype of every other light.” As such He is “prior to and high above every archetype.” Thus He holds the position of “a model of a model,” that is, He is the model for His Word, which Word becomes the model for creation. The Word, therefore, contains all the qualities of God. As Philo expressed it, “the model or pattern was the Word which contained all His fullness — light, in fact.” (“On Dreams,” I:75, Loeb V, pp. 336-337) Paul expressed a similar thought when he wrote that in the Son all God’s fullness dwells. (Colossians 1:19; 2:9)

To Philo, therefore, the Word of God is the eternal, uncreated Word containing all the fullness of God and bearing His image. That divine image which the Word bears is the image in which man was created. The Word is further the sustainer, upholder and ruler of the world, carrying on the governing of all things, as God’s viceroy, and containing all God’s fullness.

While the Word is not a created thing and carries on all the functions of God, Philo is clear that there are not two gods — although he does not attempt to explain how this can be. Philo’s teaching is, therefore, very close to the biblical doctrine of the Trinity. Philo reached his conclusions without the aid of the New Testament and certainly without deriving his ideas from pagan notions of deity. The Old Testament teaching that the Angel of Yahweh is really the presence of Yahweh Himself seems to have strongly influenced Philo’s ideas.

To relegate the doctrine of the Trinity, therefore, to a fourth- century adaptation of paganism is to ignore the conclusions that several Jewish theologians and teachers had reached four centuries earlier, from God’s revelations given to Israel before the time of the coming of Christ. At the very time that the Word was becoming flesh (John 1:1, 14), Jewish writers were already beginning to see that God’s Word could in some way be distinguished from God the Father Himself, yet have all the fullness of God contained in Him.

http://www.barr-family.com/godsword/trinity.htm

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7 Comments

  1. Concepts such as trinity, resurrection after three days, the father, son of God etc. might be found in early Judaism, but the non-Hellenistic Jews did not understand them as Christians did (and still do).

    The Targums are perfect example of negation of materialization, which came to fight pagan and Christian conceptions.

    • Adam Gouroutidis
    • Posted September 23, 2008 at 5:55 am
    • Permalink

    Here’s what i believe!
    It is written” In the [B]beginning[/B] was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” My question is , does God have a beginning?No , He does not , He made time so He has no beginning.But it says that the Word was God!
    Let me ask something else.. Does God have a shape, an image? If I say that He does then I would be limitting Him and that’s not wise because God has no limits of any kind.But God wanted to create a human being that would be in His image , so if He has no image then what would that human being look like?
    God has to give Himself a shape , an image and that’s how he gave birth to the Word.
    It is written”All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.”Who is John talking about here?He’s talkinhg about The Word!The Word made all things.
    Does God give birth? It is written that both man and woman are made in His image so yes , God gives birth! And whatever God gives birth to, cannot be something less than God just like humans give birth to humans and dogs give birth to dogs.How was The Word born? It is written that for all those things that we cannot understand , nature is our example.
    ”21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: [B]and he took [/B][B]one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;[/B]
    ”22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.

    23 And Adam said, [B]This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh[/B]: she shall be called Woman, [B]because she was taken out of Man[/B].

    24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: [B]and they shall be one flesh[/B].
    In a way that’s how The Word was also born , or taken out of God , ’cause someone does not have to come out of a woman’s legs to be born.My son was taken out of my wife’s belly , but i assure you he is born!
    So Man and Woman were ONE FLESH , and that’s exactly what God and The Word are.They are ONE ! Man and Woman are one flesh and God and The Word are [B][U]ONE GOD[/U][/B]!
    The Word is God’s image and ”All things were made by him” , He , The Word made us humans in His image , the image of His unseen Father , God!
    ”14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us,” The Word became the person that we call Jesus Christ.
    ”5 Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus:

    6 Who, [B][U]being in the form of God[/U][/B], thought it not robbery to be equal with God:

    7 [B][U]But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men:[/U][/B]

    8 And [B][U]BEING FOUND [/U][/B]in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.”

    That’s how i see it!
    Thank you for your time!

  2. TY Emanuel and Adam for your post. I have been evacuated because of a hurricane but will try to remember to respond to your post soon.

    • Adam Gouroutidis
    • Posted September 24, 2008 at 11:16 am
    • Permalink

    Ebenezer , Damon!

  3. Hi Adam, your small two word post was a great learning experience for me as I had no idea the real meaning of Ebenezer or that it was a biblical term. To be honest, I was baffled at your choice of that word in your comment. Of course I thought of that old scrooge,, Ebenezer. So I was offended just enough to investigate. I found an article by a pastor that showed the terms scriptural origin and entomology. The pastor rendered the term to mean a “stone of help”. So I was uplifted and reminded that Jesus is always with us, especially in out time of need. So TY for the 2 words of blessing and admonition.

    We where blessed in that we did not receive much damage but the storm did make a big mess of things. Unlike some of our neighbors, we did not lose any trees but every tree lost at least a few limbs and I lost the top to my favorite Oak tree, so there is debris everywhere, enough to keep me busy for a couple of days. We are fortunate to have relatives that live in central Texas, so I was able to get my mother out of here and keep her breathing, she has COPD so she has to have AC. And it was a real blessing to spend more time with my relatives. I had some time to do some deep thinking while I was away and the Lord impressed upon me to start studying prophecy and end times again, which I had been avoiding for awhile. And one of my relatives that I stayed with is a word faith preacher, so I had many conversations with her that caused me to desire to write about my personal experiences with my friends and family that are of the word faith movement, with which I strongly but respectably disagree.

    So the Storm was a blessing of sorts, and Jesus was a stone of help; as he always is. TY again Adam,for your comments and blessing.

    • Adam Gouroutidis
    • Posted September 25, 2008 at 5:08 am
    • Permalink

    Dear Damon!
    Thank you for researching and not staying ”offended”!
    I thought of Ebenezer because that was what the Jews were saying to eachother while they were hunted by other nations. It had the meaning of ” God helped us so far” so He will continue helping us! A stone of help!!!
    I was surprised to read that the Lord impressed you to study prophecy and end of times because just a couple of days ago i found the Jack Barr website. In that site there prophecies conserning the end of times especially about America.There is one called ”The last warning of Jesus Christ” and more and reading all this made me wonder!
    A few weeks before that somehow while praying i said something about the ”sixth hour” but i was not able to understand more.In the Bible the sixth hour has to do with the beginning of a dark period.Jesus died at the sixth hour of the day and darkness feld upon Jerusalem and earthquakes and many more.
    I do not know anything about Jack Barr, i live in Greece, but i trust the Spirit guiding me !
    If you can , check this out and please let me know what you think.
    My email is adam7gur@yahoo.gr
    Thank you!

  4. __________________

    Hi Adam. I was at a prophecy website late last night that was saying there is three reasons why America is not found in revelations or OT prophecy and why Russia would be able to attack Israel from the north if America was still the predominant superpower. . They speculated the US will no longer be a world power because 1. Financial collapse 2. Pre-emptive nuclear strike by Russian subs. 3 The rapture would render America in more chaos than other nations because of a greater percentage of believers would be taken away.

    I have also heard that America is symbolized in the OT tribe of Dan. It has been a long time since I studied so I forget the implications of that view. I am interested in any opinion about America in prophecy as I am an American. So yes I will check out the site you suggested when I can get to it. I am still busy cleaning from the storm. If I forget can you remind me?

    I am of the opinion that America is spiritual Babylon and the head of a world wide neo-Babylonian occultic system.

    I will try to get back too you in a day or two. TY so much for visiting this blog and Commenting Blessings, Damon
    ________________________


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